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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and have been found in Australia in small numbers. Recently they've become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and parts of the world, over the last ten years. .
The main reason for the increase is thought to be caused by insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are exceptionally resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world travel with bed bugs being dispersed in luggage, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs may then be transported and brought back to the houses of guests in their own luggage.
Many hostels have now banned the usage of travellers own sleeping linen in common accommodation as a security precaution against this insect.
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In early infestations, bed bugs are found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. As the infestation spreads, the bugs proceed to any tiny crevices, which may be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their color, adult bed bugs can easily be seen with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but very difficult to see on brown wooden floors and other dark surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident by black or brown spots of blood excrement or spotting. There might also be an offensive sweet sticky odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour called buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin shells might also be found near these places, in addition to living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This system of communication and the launch of alarm pheromones can make them very difficult to deal with as bed bugs become alert and quickly vacate the region being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs may also propagate into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will nourish and therefore are very likely to haven in close proximity. In cases like this, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a short amount of time. .
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Different individuals have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of factors. Some individuals have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the bite site can get red and intensely itchy. This can occur during the course of the night or may take up to develop.
The red wheals can range from 2 cm to 5 cm in diameter with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock could possibly occur in individuals that are highly contagious, although this is rare. .
Discomfort and reduction of sleep is common in the psychological effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on many different places on the body. Another characteristic is that the bites are sometimes in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. These rows are brought on by the bed bug being upset during feeding and having to pierce the skin to feed again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but will also feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Even though they can carry diseases such as hepatitis they are not known to transfer these diseases to other individuals.
The survival of bed bug eggs is also an issue. It's not uncommon for the reside bed bugs amongst an infestation to be completely eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the exact location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period up to fourteen days and could be deposited in try this out hidden areas that are tough to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are made more problematic because of the now smaller size of this newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is discovered, all adjoining chambers need to be inspected and handled if additionally affected.
This can be completed by the use of adhesive tape (if insect numbers are very little ) to trap the insect. Vacuuming can also be recommended before substance treatment as it eliminates all dust and debris from the site of the infestation making it simpler for following chemical control to go to this site penetrate and in turn succeed.